Top 10 oldest mosques in Iran
After the rise of Islam in Saudi Arabia and its subsequent influence in Iran, it gradually spread throughout the Middle East and parts of Europe and as far as Spain.
One of the most important and significant Islamic buildings was the mosques that were built in every city. The original style of Arab mosques had a simple plan, but with the spread of Islam in Iran and the influence of Iranian architecture in the design of mosques, a new type of mosques was created called Iranian-Islamic mosques. Iranian artisans and artists have made every effort to decorate mosques as the most important center of Islamic gathering.
These decorations start from the simplest part of the mosques and culminate in the altar, which is the place of worship and connection of man to God. Therefore, the most beautiful and complete type of decoration is always evident in the altars of mosques. Mosques have common architectural elements in all places where they are built; The courtyard, iwan, porch, minaret, dome, nave, and altar. There are currently more than 70,000 mosques in Iran, all of which have some form of Iranian-Islamic architecture. But among all mosques, some have original Iranian-Arabic roots, indicating the evolution of mosques in Iran from 1,200 years ago to the present.
The most famous of them are:
The Tarikhaneh Temple or the Tarikhaneh Mosque is a Sassanid-era monument located in the city of Damghan, Semnan Province, Iran. This is mentioned as the oldest mosque in Iran. This mosque is built on the remains of a Sassanid fire temple. Tarik Khane, or "God's House' is a combination of the Arabic mosque plans with Sasanian architectural techniques. The plan of the mosque consists of a square courtyard that is surrounded by arches of barrel vaults in 3.5 meters high and almost 2 meters and supported by slightly pointed brick arches fired on rather squat circular pillars, typical of Sassanid architecture.
2-Saveh Jame Mosque
This Seljuk mosque is located in the city of Saveh. This glorious mosque is an artistic treasure of Sassanids art and architect with spectacular tilework and plasterwork. This mosque consists of two Iwans, one 14 meters height, and a diameter of 3.5 meters brick minaret, a rectangular open court, dome, and two archaic altars with inscription in Kufic script. This treasure of Iranian-Islamic arts with a Sassanid structure in different historical periods, especially the Safavid period, has been had some changes.
3-Zavareh Jāmeh Mosque
Jāmeh Mosque of Zavareh is the grand, congregational mosque (Jāmeh) of Zavareh city, Isfahan Province of Iran. On the basis of the entrance stucco of the mosque, this Seljuk-era monument is renovated on 1135-1136 AH to a four-portico (iwan) plan in the post-Islamic mosque. This mosque is the earliest dated example of a four-iwan plan scheme. The mosque with 1200 sq meters has a rectangular plan with 4 Iwan, the main courtyard, a great dome, and a full decorated mihrab is one of the best mosques of Iran. More " 7 things you haven't heard about Iranian mosques"
4-Isfahan Jame Mosque
Isfahan Jame Mosque, a masterpiece of Iranian architecture
The Jame mosque is a real museum of Iranian-Islamic architecture while still functioning as a main place of worship. A Showcasing of 1000 years of Iranian artists and craftsmen's efforts in completing this magnificent monument. A masterpiece religious monument that shows like a museum the art and architect of different periods. From the geometric elegance of the Seljuks to the more florid refinements of the Safavid era. Covering more than 20,000 sq meters, this is the biggest mosque in Iran. This magnificent building, which has aroused the admiration of all tourists, will enchant you by showing beautiful different parts like:
The 15th-century south porch, with decorative art from the Mongol period, or the north iwan is noteworthy for its monumental porch with the Seljuks’ customary Kufic inscriptions and austere brick pillars in the sanctuary. Also, the Taj al-Molk Dome, widely regarded as the most beautiful brick dome in Persia and has survived dozens of flawless earthquakes for over 900 years. The west Seljuks iwan that later decorated by the Safavids, and the Room of Sultan Uljeitu (a 14th-century Shiite convert) with an exquisite stucco mihrab with dense Quranic inscriptions and floral designs all together will captivate the visitors.
5-Fahraj mosque or the oldest one in Iran
One of the old undated mosques in Iran that Some archeologists believe it is the oldest surviving Islamic structure in Iran. Fahraj mosque is located in a town of the same name, close to the city of Yazd, and demonstrates the simple architectural characteristics of the early Islamic centuries. The eight large columns and the small nave of the building are reminiscent of Sassanid buildings. The not-so-tall minaret of the mosque was added to the main building in the 10th or 11th century and is made of smaller raw bricks. Inside the mosque, there are no traces of altars, domes, inscriptions, tiling, and other common industries in the construction of mosques of later periods. But the elegant stucco reliefs on the eastern wall and some other decorative pieces possess Sasanian art features.
6-Varamin Jame Mosque, the manifestation of Ilkhanid art in the vicinity of Tehran
Jame Mosque of Varamin or Congregation mosque of Varamin is an Ilkhanid era's construction(1322), began during the reign of Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh, and was completed during his son’s rule Sultan Abu Sa'eed, and is located in 25 Km far from Tehran. Varamin Mosque is an example of Iranian-Islamic mosques with four porches that the Islamic architecture evolution is visible there. This Iranian architecture museum houses a collection of the most beautiful Iranian-Islamic decorations elements, which include various types of plasterwork, brickwork, decorative lines, and architectural arts. The most important part of this religious monument consists of a Shabestan(Yard), a veranda, a large brick dome, the structure next to the shabestan, and ten small arches as well as a large arch in the middle.
7-Qazvin Jame Mosque: A Seljuk mosque in the capital of Safavid dynasty
one of the oldest Friday congregational mosques in Iran that is built on a remained Sasanian fire temple by the order of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid in 807. The building is alive to the present with various additions and repairs. The main structure of the mosque dates mainly from the 11th century when the Seljuk Turks established Isfahan as the capital. Additions and modifications were made during the Il-Khanid, Timurid, Safavid, and Qajar rule. The building was extensively renovated in the 16th and 18th centuries during the Safavid period (1501-1732) and various sections were added to it. Two iwans in the South and West, a vast courtyard, a veranda, were added during this period. Also, additions and renovations were made around the building in the Qajar period. This brick monument with four Iwan is decorated with Glazed tiles, delicate and beautiful mosaics, plasterwork, nice Muqarnas, and other Iranian-Islamic elements.
8-Farumad Jameh Mosque, A journey to the deep of history
If you are looking for lost histories and are going to planning a journey into the depths of Iran's history and stimulate your imagination. This is one of your best choices. The fantastic stuccos, deep vault, and decoration remaining from different eras can take you on a journey back to history. Farumad Jameh Mosque is close to the road between Shahrud and Mashhad, in a village with the same name. This Mosque with a two-iwan plan has no certain tablet to indicating the date of the building. However, based on the similarities between this mosque and other two-iwan mosques of Khorasan, it is estimated to date back to the Khwarazmian dynasty. The Northern entrance gate is the most important feature of the mosque which is decorated with brickwork, stucco, and tablets. Also, the south Mihrab of the mosque is ornamented with stucco in turquoise and ultramarine. More "The most beautiful ceilings of mosques in Iran"
9-Neyriz Jame Mosque; A mixture of art and religion with Sassanid structure
One of the oldest mosques in Iran with one porch that is built on the remains of the Sassanid fire temple. This mosque is not only one of the oldest mosques in Iran, but in many cases, it has unique features of Islamic architecture that are visible just only in this mosque. The remaining porch of this mosque was built in the architectural style of the Sassanid period and according to various documents, the porch of this mosque was built in 340 AH. This mosque in different historical periods, including in 460 AH. and 560 AH. Safavid and Qajar period was repaired and rebuilt.
10- Shushtar Jameh Mosque
The Jameh Mosque of Shushtar (Masjed'e Jameh'e Shooshtar) is located west of Shooshtar in the province of Khuzestan and is a vestige of the first Islamic period. It was built by one of the Abbasid Caliphate. This old mosque was repaired during the Safavid era. The current structure of the mosque includes a large night area (shabestan), a large courtyard, and minarets to the east. The night area has pillars and is covered with a domed ceiling. In the middle of the south side of the night area is an adytum with plasterwork in the Safavid style. On the other side, one can also note inscriptions and engravings in plaster as well as decrees of royalty. On the outer door of this area, which is decorated with arches and decorative bricks, there are two stone inscriptions with the counter-sacred of the Holy Quran. In the east side of the mosque is a vestige of a beautiful minaret dating from the 8th century AH, which is meticulously worked and inscribed with sacred against "Allah", "Mohammad", "Ali". More "10 beautiful mosques that should be seen in Iran"