Christianity has a long previous record history in Iran. From the first Christians up to arriving Islam and the new Iranian Christians. It has always been a minority religion relative to the majority state religions. though they had more representation in past. Iran Christians have played the main role in the history of Christian missions. The beginning of Christianity in Iran is from the Parthian Period and the Early Middle Ages. The Christians of Iran are among the Eastern Christians. These are the same groups of Christians stationed in the eastern territories of Jerusalem. In the year 766, Baghdad became the capital of the Islamic state. At that time, Iran became the main center of Christians and sent representatives to other countries around. There are some of the most famous Christian churches all over Iran.
one of the oldest church buildings in the world or certainly in Iran is the Monastery of Saint Thaddeus which is located in the mountainous area of West Azerbaijan Province 20 kilometers from the Chaldiran town, Iran. It is also known as Kara Kelisa or the Black Church. The Monastery is the site of the Pilgrimage of St. Thaddeus which in 2020 was added by UNESCO to its list of Intangible Cultural Heritage. The church has a large rectangular cruciform plan. A single conical dome sits above a sixteen-sided drum with eight windows that let light into the interior of the structure. There are also niches in the facades between each of the windows that surround the drum. There is a single small window in the apse, while there are ten larger windows that light up the nave, and one window in each of the prayer or "study" rooms adjacent to the apse. The exterior and interior of the church are relatively devoid of any decoration. The molding above the windows is also not decorated.
The most Spectacular Church of Iran
This cathedral is called; Kelisa (Church) as a congregational church of Esfahan. It was built initially as a small Church called; Amena Pergaige in 1606 A.D., and then expanded to its present size later in 1655 A.D., with a gorgeous nave topped by a 38- meter lofty double-layer dome. The nave is adorned all over by mural paintings, including three genres of Iranian miniature, Armenian, and Byzantine either the lower part of the polychrome tilework, which is mostly similar to the arabesque designs of mosques and some realistic patterns which are similar to the Armenian style designed. On the northern part of the courtyard, two buildings of the library and a museum exist, of which the former dates back to the early 20th century and the latter to 1971 A.D. There is also a symbolic structure (cenotaph) on the western part of the library in memory of those Armenians, in the genocide committed against them during the First World War in 1915 A.D. by the Ottoman Turks.
The Saint Stepanos Monastery is one of the most famous 9th-century Armenian monasteries in Iran. It is located about 15 km northwest of the city of Julfa in the province of East Azarbaijan, on the Iranian side of the border between Iran and Nakhchivan. This is one of the Iranian - Christian churches which are inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Jolfa’s tourist stunning pearl is located over a wooded hill above the Aras River, 17km west of Jolfa. The different historical parts of it like the ancient stone arch and ‘mill’ cascade, objects of the museum, and exterior reliefs, are renovated and kept well.
The most famous Russian Orthodox church in Qazvin is called Cantor or Kantur Church. One of the historical sites of Qazvin is a red-headed church that is made in 1905 for the Russian engineers hired for road construction in Qazvin. This historical chapel is located in one of the old parts of Qazvin. This area was under the control of the Russians during the late Qajar period and they called it Cantor, meaning the headquarters or center. The irregular polygonal plan, the use of glazed red bricks in the facade, and the domed roof of the church distinguish this building from many buildings in Qazvin and other churches. Most of the facade of the Russian church is made of brick and is made of bricks and mortar. On its wall, there are windows that are drawn like a horseshoe and are framed by two rows of bricks.
The most beautiful Greek Church in Tehran is located in front of the last USA embassy -in Tehran. The Greek Orthodox Church of Saint Mary, also known as the Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation of the Mother of God opened in 1951. This church belongs to the Greeks who lived in Iran, but today, because most of the followers of the Greek Orthodox Church have emigrated from Iran, few ceremonies are held in this church.
one of the three main Armenian dioceses in Tehran is located at Saint Sarkis Cathedral. This historical monument with its white building, a conical dome, and raised Minarets is the hangout of Tehran's Armenians. This Cathedral which is one of the main symbols of Armenian presence in Tehran is built-in 1970 with a combination of Middle Ages and modern age architectures. The building of caliphate council was also built in the external area of the cathedral. The grave of an archbishop, Artak Manukean, is the only tomb in the courtyard of the cathedral. The entrance gate of the church includes a main larger gate in the middle and two small doors on its sides. The main hall is decorated with fantastic paintings of the Gospel stories, the altar with a floor upper than the ground level is full of paintings related to the stories of the holy book, and has a balcony for choir performances. Today the Armenians gather here to hold their religious ceremonies.
One of the most important of Iran's cultural features is the peaceful coexistence of different religions. This church is adjacent to one of the mosques in Abadan and it is the most important sign of religions' coexistence. This church, along with two other churches that were destroyed during the Iran-Iraq War, was the most important Christian building in the city. The Armenian Church of Surp Karapet was founded in 1957 in Abadan, during the reign of Pahlavi. This Gregorian church was once close to two Protestant churches, the Christopher Church, founded in 1928, and the Assyrian Church, founded in 1951, neither of which is preserved today. Together they constituted the triple churches of Abadan.
St. Mary's Church or Dzordzor Chapel is located in Mako County, West Azerbaijan Province, 12 km northwest of St. Thaddeus Monastery (Qarah Church), near the village of Barun. This church is one of the Historical Monuments of Iran, which is also inscribed on the List of National Monuments of Iran and on the UNESCO World Heritage List. In 1988, due to the flooding of Baron Dam, the church was moved to a higher point, 600 meters from the main site. From the cruelty of Shah Abbas I to expelling Armenians from this region, the relocation of the reservoir behind the dam, and the re-transfer to the hill, are the ups and downs this historic little church has faced. The date of construction of Zor Zor is estimated between 1315-1342 AD and was built by the Archbishop of the Church of St. Thaddeus, named "Zakaria" of the great family and owners of the area, and as a religious school, cultural and literary education, under the supervision of It was headed by Bishop Hovhannes Yerznaghatsi (Yerzengatsi), one of the most famous Armenians of literature and education.