CYRUS THE GREAT
by: David Stronach
539 BC – Cyrus the Great (founder of Persian Empire) entered the capital of Babylon and allowed the Jews to return to their land.
By the time of his death in 530 B.C. Cyrus, the Great had changed the face of the civilized world. A mere vassal at the beginning of his reign, his warlike feats served to create a new vision of empire, bringing all that was known of Asia, from the distant waters of the Yaxartes to the warm shores of the Mediterranean, within the bounds of one realm, while more important still, his judicious treatment of the many separate peoples under his rule almost certainly brought into being a new, more benevolent concept of human government.
Introducing the carpet area
From ancient times up to now the following religions have been practiced in Iran: Paganism period, Mithraism (Mitra worshipping) period, Zoroastrian period and Islamic period. Besides the above several other faiths were followed by small minorities such as the followers of Mazdak and Mani and Christianity before the birth of Islam.
Iranian food contains the most perfect ingredients in the world. Iranian stews and soups show that the Iranian women have exact information about food ingredients and how to combine them to produce the most nutritious effect and flavor. Cereals, vegetables, and herbal and animal proteins exist in nearly all Iranian foods. One of the privileges of Iranian cuisine is an effort to cook the most delicious food. All cultures look at food as a means to respond to human physical needs and to make people enjoy it, but the importance of Iranian food (or countries with warmer climate) lies in the fact that their dishes are more diverse and palatable.
Islamic mysticism, also known as Sufism, is a complex of beliefs and practices which aims to find the divine knowledge through the direct personal experience of God. The term Sufi may have derived from
Iran Natural Landscapes
Each part of this ancient land has unique characteristics that distinguish it from other regions. These four seasons of land have very beautiful mountainous, forest and desert regions. Forests of northern Iran (Hyrcanian or Caspian forests) of approximately 1,488,000 hectares located south of the Caspian Sea and along the northern slopes of the Alborz Range from Astarara to west to Golestan to the east. These forests are part of deciduous broadleaved forests with a mild Mediterranean climate. In general, the forests of northern Iran have 80 species of trees, 50 species of shrubs and hundreds of perennial grasses. You can use travel agency programs to visit Iran's forests
The deserts in Iran, most of which fall in the center of the Iranian plateau, are well known in the world for their enormous size, barrenness, and moving sands. Lut Desert is located southeast of Iran and Dasht-Kavir or Markazi Desert is located in the center. The length of the sand dunes in Markazi Desert is approximately 150 kilometers. Relocation of moving sands is a big problem which threatens the towns and farms at the margin of Iranian deserts.
The Geographical situation of Iran
Iran is located southwest of the Asian Continent. From the north the country borders with the Caucasus and Caspian Sea (Mazandaran Sea) and Central Asia. From east it borders with Afghanistan and Pakistan. from south with Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman and from west it is bounded by Iraq and Turkey. The present Iran is part of a bigger mountainous plateau which incorporated several seas, lakes and plains including the Caspian Sea at north,...
Pahlavi Dynasty (1925-1979)
The Pahlavi dynasty was established in Iran after the dissolution of the Qajar dynasty in 1925 and continued until 1979 (for a period of 53 years). The Pahlavi regime was dissolved with the beginning of the Islamic revolution in 1979. Two kings, namely Reza Khan and his son Mohammad Reza, ruled the country during this period. By establishing a constitutional parliament, Reza Shah officially declared himself king
Qajar Dynasty (1789 - 1925)
The founders of the Qajar dynasty were members of a Turkmen tribe, known as Qajars, who had been brought to Iran from Central Asia during the Mongol invasion. Upon the arrival of this tribe, many feudal governors from different parts of the country mutually destroyed each other, either united and finally obeyed the king of the country's capital in a federal system. After this unification, the Iranians united under a single banner. Their tribal colors still survived in the Iranian banner
Zand Dynasty (1760-1794)
As we have already mentioned after the death of Nader, his generals began to fight and plunged the country into chaos. Finally, Karim Khan Zand, a Lor boss, defeated his rivals and, after 16 years of chaos, brought peace to the country. Karim Khan, who never qualified as king, chose his capital in Shiraz
Afshar Dynasty (1736-1747)
After a brief conquest of Iran by the Afghans, the Iranian army commanded by Nader, a brave commander of Tahmasb Mirza, son of the last Safavid king, defeated the Afghans after four battles and chased them out of Iran. Meanwhile, after a series of battles with Ottoman Turkey, Nader Shah has won victories in all areas. He defeated the Turkish armies and pushed them to the Black Sea and expelled them from Armenia and Georgia.
Safavid Dynasty (1501 - 1736)
The Safavid government, which is to be seen as a new system in the Iranian political and religious system, has led to Iran's independence from the Shiite religion as an official religion and a centralized government. In addition, the creation of the new dynasty encouraged Iranian artists to display their culture, architecture and fine arts. In the meantime, exchanges have developed with the beginning of diplomatic relations with Europe and neighboring countries.
Timurid Dynasty (1370 - 1507)
After invading and conquering the Iranian cities, Timur founded a government that continued from the lunar year 772 to 911 (13th-15th century AD) from the Russian steppes and from Moscow to Delhi in India, of course, the Timurid rulers could not preserve all these vast territories: their ferocious armies were only attacking and plundering new countries and withdrawing with their booty. Nevertheless, the Timurid territories extend from Transoxiana (seat of his government) to Kharazm.
Mongolian & Ilkhanate Dynasty
Mongolian Ilkhanate (1256 - 1353) Genghis ( Changiz Khan) amalgamate his unify power in the 13th century. After conquering Beijing, the capital of China, he decided to start a trade with the West countries of Asia to improve the lives of people who were living in Central Asia. He established new diplomatic ties with the Kharazm kings to expand his trade westward, but the idiotic and hostile behavior of the Kharazm king prompted Changiz Khan to attack Iran.