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One of the Iranian masterpieces architectural

Windcatcher
One of the Iranian masterpieces architectural in the desert areas is the Windcatcher. This invention of Iranian architects has a very simple appearance but is very complex and technical. This architecture technique caused an easier life for the desert inhabited areas. The Windcatcher is one of the magnificent symbols of Iranian civilization. Today, these Wind catchers have become a symbol that the tourists interest to visit them.

The Windcatcher is one of the magnificent symbols of Iranian civilization

The windcatcher is an Iranian innovative method for creating a cool atmosphere inside hot desert houses. This air conditioner system has caused to make and tolerate a better living space for the people. Central Iran has a large daily temperature variation with an arid climate. Most buildings are constructed with thick ceramic that Its performance is like insulation. The desert towns are made very close together with tall walls and ceilings that make the maximizing shade on the ground. The windcatcher's effectiveness had led to its routine use as a refrigerating device in Persian architecture.
Many traditional water reservoirs (ab anbars) are built with windcatchers technique that is capable of storing water very cool during the summer or warm months.
Since the effect of water evaporation is more evident in the desert areas, leading to the ubiquitous use of windcatchers in drier areas such as Yazd, Kerman, Kashan, Sirjan, Nain, and Bam.

one of the best historical  houses in Iran

windcatchers are usually small polygons or regular polygons. The windcatcher is made up of a tall tower that is located on the roof or the tallest section of the house.
Generally, windcatchers were built on a part of a desert house called "Hoz Khane".The Hoz Khane was a kind of Iranian room, which usually had a small tank of water. Due to the existence of a water pool, the temperature of these rooms was less than the others.wind catchers were usually built above these atoms because they were used by residents in the summer.

The windcatchers are generally made of brick and mud and to secure them against the wind, wooden beams were used. Also, the exterior faces were decorated with Plaster and brick. Their operation is like a cooler. The wind enters the room through the vents. After the collision with the water, evaporation carries out. The temperature difference in these rooms is usually between 5 up to 8 degrees lower than the others.
The windcatchers can change the temperature of houses with 2 methods:
1- Moving the fresh air inside the home
2- Transfering the wind toward the pool"Hoz Khane".

During the years, the local architects have used different methods to increase the efficiency of Wind catcher.

The Windcatcher  map shows how it work

Different types of  the windcatcher
The wind catchers have different faces.
1- One side: They are the simplest type and usually made up toward the cool seasonal winds.
2- Two-sided: They have tall windows at each side.
3- Triple: In this model, the different seasonal winds can be used.
4- Four sides: four-way windcatcher are made more complete and detailed than the other types.
5- Polygon: This model absorbs all seasonal and unseasonal winds.

Decorations
The most important outer cover of wind catcher is plaster of clay and straw. The wind catchers are covered in hot and humid seasons with plaster and mortar.
This type of covering protects it against the moisture.
Most wind catchers are simple without any decorations.
Some of the wind catchers decorated with a variety of architectural elements as plasterworks, Brick works, decorative arches
 and in some cases very special wind catcher(Dowlatabad wind catcher 33 meters high and
Abarkoo wind catcher at 3 floors).

The world's tallest wind catcher

 The world's tallest wind catcher
The Dowlat Abad Garden in Yazd has the tallest windcatcher in Iran. The Dolatabad Garden of Yazd has established in the late Afshar period and in 1160 AH.
This historic gardens with an area of 70,000 square meters has a historic Qanat from 200 years ago.

 The most beautiful Iran wind catcher
"Aghazadeh Abarkuh" Mansion is one of the attractions of Abarkouh city in Yazd province.  This old house has the largest wind catcher in Iran and the world.
This house belongs to Qajar dynasty. The height of the wind catcher is 18 meters. This windcatcher is one of the most famous monuments of Iran, whose photo is printed on Iranian money.

The most beautiful Iran wind catcher "Aghazadeh Abarkuh" Mansion