Beautiful, amazing, glorious, arches, mosaic tiles, and circular domes, are the structural features of pre-Islamic architecture in Iran. Iranian architecture dates back to 5000 BC and has had a significant impact on the architecture of India, Turkey, and Tajikistan to Zanzibar. "Iran's supreme art, in the true sense of the word, has always been its architecture." The supremacy of architecture applies to pre-and post-Islamic times, "said Arthur Pope, an American expert on Iranian art.
Various buildings and collections, such as mosques, shrines, markets, bridges, and palaces, have survived from ancient times and ancient times. The Iranians knew how to build large buildings with huge indoor space and their places of worship have always been in harmony with the ideas and nature that surround them.
The architecture of mosques in Iran varies from region to region because of the geometric structures, materials, and styles of each place. These mosques often have very complex structures in which color variations, tiles, and symbolic designs are used. The dome of the mosque shines with the reflection of the sun, like turquoise on the roof of mosques, and travelers who enter Iran by the Silk Road and pass by this road can see these glowing domes a few kilometers away. In the last ten years, modern-style mosques have been built around the world. It is a masterpiece of absolute art. But these mosques do not have the same value as mosques in Muslim countries.
The Imam Mosque, located on the south side of Isfahan Square, is an excellent example of Islamic architecture in Iran. This immortal masterpiece, as well as the Naghsh-e-Jahan square, has been registered on the UNESCO World Heritage site. This mosque belongs to the 6th century AD. The splendor is due to the mosaic, enameled tiles, and beautiful writing (handwritten Iranian Nastaligh) which was used by Iranian architecture teachers. The peculiarity of each mosque is its minaret. This mosque has 4 minarets. Acoustic properties and reflections at the central point under the dome are of interest to many visitors, as the ingenuity of the architects in creating the dome allows the imam to speak with a moderate voice and to be always clearly heard by all the world inside the building. The architecture of these mosques is very complex and includes many Ivans and courtyards. The photo of this mosque is printed behind the 20 000 Iranian Rial banknote.
The Sheikh Lotfolah Mosque is built as a private mosque of the royal family. This is why she does not have a minaret. The drawing made by calligraphy and tiles in this mosque is more beautiful and better than the other Persian and Islamic works. The real charm of the interior of the building results from its perfect symmetry. The prayer room is built on a square plan that is transformed into a circular dome by means of four large squeakers that extend to the ground level and are twinned on four sides of the square by four large arches of the same size.
This mosque was built during the Qajar period. In this mosque, colored glass is widely used as an outdoor decoration. This mosque is unique for its tile work and architecture. The construction of the mosque began in 1293 AH. And finally finished in 1305 AH. By Mohammad Hassan Me'mar and Mohammad Reza Kashi Paz Shirazi. The facade of the mosque is very colorful with colored glass. It also features traditional elements such as Panj Goshe-i (five concaves). The pink mosque is also called it in popular culture because of the use of beautiful pink tiles for its interior design.
This mosque has the tallest entrance door among all of Iran’s mosques. A fine example of Iranian-style Azari architecture, Jame Mosque, Yazd is crowned by a pair of minarets, the highest in Iran. The 12th-century mosque is still used today. It was built under Ala'oddoleh Garshasb, of the Al-e Bouyeh dynasty. The mosque was rebuilt largely between 1324 and 1365 and is one of the outstanding buildings of the fourteenth century in Iran.
The mosque has a porch and is built around 100 years old and has three periods of government. The main structure of this mosque is related to the Sassanid period.
This mosque is important for several reasons:
- The oldest example of architecture.
- Use of indirect light in the mosque.
- Extended ceilings with beautiful decorations.
Sheikh Safi's collection was made from the early 16th century until the end of the 18th century. This monument contains a collection of monuments of princes and emperors of the Safavid period. The tomb of Sheikh Safi is built like an octagon, and the dome known as "Allah, Allah" is placed on it.
The most important parts of this collection are:
- Main entrance door.
- Ghandil Khane.
The Goharshad Mosque was built on the orders of Lady Goharshad, wife of Shahrokh, king of the Timurid dynasty, in 1418 AD. Due to the elegance and beauty of the tiles, the architectural style, and the style of the Goharshad Mosque, this mosque is one of the masterpieces of the Iranian architecture of the Timurid era. The Goharshad Mosque is a classical mosque built in the form of four ivory mosques. The mosque has a dome with a height of 41 meters and 2 minarets with a height of 43 meters. The mosque of Goharshad Mashhad is the largest mosque in the monument of the sacred shrine Imam Reza ", its 2,850-square-meter courtyard is the oldest of this complex.
This mosque is known as the Turquoise of Islam because most of the mosque is covered with blue tiles. It was built in 1465 by the order of Jahan Shah, ruler of the Qaraqouyunlu dynasty. The Blue Mosque was part of a larger architectural ensemble called the Mozafriya Collection. This collection includes a mosque, monastery, courtyard, library, and other parts, all of which were destroyed. Only the blue mosque remained.
The Jame Mosque of Zanjan School, known as the Sayed Mosque, was built in the 13th century and Qajar period. This mosque is located in the center of Zanjan and near the old Qaisiriyah traditional bazaar. This historic complex, which is one of the largest and most beautiful mosques and religious schools in Zanjan, is one of the most valuable monuments built on the basis of the four ivory mosques. The porches are located on all four sides of the mosque.
This mosque was built in the year 796 and was repaired in 1086 by Safkosh during the time of Shah Soleiman Safavid. The structure is stone and brick and the mosque consists of a courtyard, four porticoes, and two places for night prayers (Shabestan). Besides what is the vaulted ceiling and vaulted plasterwork of color, porches, and worms were written dating back to 1263 AH, as indicated in the inscriptions. The masonry of this structure was carried out by Karbalaie Isaq Qaeni. The wooden pulpit of this mosque was made by a good master craftsman, Mohammad Moqeem. It is considered one of the many examples of beautiful craftsmanship.
Tarikhane Mosque, Damghan
This mosque is a very good example of the early centuries of Islamic mosques. The mosque style is derived from Sasanian architecture. The courtyard of the mosque is based on 18 circular columns (three rows of six). These columns have 1.5 diameters and their architecture is similar to that of Sassanid palaces. The arches of the mosque are brick and look very much like those of the pre-Islamic period and the Sassanid period. The overall design of the mosque is quite simple but attractive, but it gives you a sense of majesty, and beauty and is one of the most magnificent Islamic buildings.