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Blue Mosque the Turquoise of Islam

It is one of Mozafariyeh's era Mosques and monuments that were built upon the order of Jahanshah ebn e shah-Yusef, a ruler of the Qara Qoyunloo dynasty. It attests to the constructive efforts of this dynasty in Tabriz. The construction of the Blue Mosque of Tabriz was begun at the request of Khatun-Jan Beigom, the consort of Johanshah, under the supervision of Ezz-ed-Din Gamchi and was completed in Rabi’-ol-Avval 870 AH / AD Oct.Dec. 1465.

A thorough examination of this monument reveals that its construction was based on a predetermined project comprising plans and decorative schemes prepared by eminent architects and artists of the time. The exterior appearance of the building bears a mystical character that calls upon devotees to Serenely approach the house of God, where the wish of joining the beloved fills the lovers’ minds. The artists in charge of the construction of the mosque utilized indigo, turquoise-colored, white, and black tiles in tessellated patterns, which represent the most perfect type of tie-work in the Islamic world. and benefiting from various delicate arabesque motifs have created a masterpiece unparalleled in the entire Islamic world. Tall Spaces. Well-proportioned masses and exquisite decoration have brought into being a composition that leaves the Viewer dazzled. Jahan Shah had his dynastic mausoleum built in the southern part of the mosque, in a flawless organic unity with it. This adjacency was chosen in reason of the loftiness deriving from the nearness with the house of God. The entrance of the mausoleum has been intentionally located inside the mosque so that visitors entranced by the heavenly atmosphere of the mosque may Pray for the forgiveness of the deceased in all purity.

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The spandrels of the mausoleum are faced with 160 cm-high marble slabs on which verses from An-Naba'. Al-Bayyeneh and al-Farsurahs are engraved in Thulth script on a background of fine arabesques. The adoption of Thulth script on a background of delicate arabesques indicates the perspicacity of the engravers, who have combined the harmonious slow of God's words with patterns as refined as man's thought and as firm as his faith. The use of indigo tiles in a magnificent Order in the decoration of the mausoleum attests to the mastery of the artists of the ninth century AH /15th century AD. who have been able, using simple hexagonal tiles, to give birth to an unequaled elegance, and Although simple. the stalactite interior decoration of the mausoleum of Jahan shah constitutes an admirable example of ninth-century architectural decoration.

The roof of the mausoleum and the main dome chamber of the mosque which provably collapsed during an earthquake in  1779  was rebuilt by master Reza Memaran the famous architect from Tabriz, and under the supervision of the National Organization for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments. The roof of the dome chamber, spanning 17 meters at a height of 20 meters, was rebuilt following a twin-layered method. The walls of the main prayer hall (dome chamber) are decorated with indigo, turquoise-colored, white, and black tiles in various tessellated patterns. The use of verses from the Holy Quran, the names of God, and episodes from the Prophet's tradition in the tile-work decoration have further enhanced its majesty. The decoration of the lateral prayer hall, follows that of the dome chamber. Complement the art and knowledge used throughout the mosque. The most beautiful tile –work of the mosque can be admired in its prayer niche. Stalactites faced with tessellated turquoise-colored, indigo, white and golden tiles, and arabesques distinguish this prayer niche and its flanking walls.

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The arabesques in the tiles of the outer edge of the prayer niche are most elegant and elaborate, indeed unique, laying the foundations of a style that was later copied and perfected in the Safavid period. The main Portico of the mosque is adorned with tessellated tile-work, Quranic inscriptions on Thulth CP on indigo and white backgrounds, and panels of verses from the Holy Quran in masons, Kufic script, displaying the best example of the tile-work decoration of the Islamic period. Remains of tessellated tile p work and stalactite adornment on the exterior surfaces of the building indicate that these surfaces were entirely decorated in this manner. The diverse kusic, Thuluh, Naskh, and Ta'liq scripts, the exquisite arabesque patterns, and the admirable chromatic compositions of these facades, which are truly stupendous, were created by Nematollah ebn e Mohammad al-Bavvab the famous artist of the ninth century A.H.

The bequeathal document of the mosque, written in 869 AH / AD 1464-5, certifies that hundreds of villages: caravansaries, bathhouses, and markets were bequeathed to the Mozaffariyeh ensemble, with the death of Jahanshah in 872 AH / AD 1467-8 during a war with Uzun-Hassan Bayandor, the founder of the Aq-Qoyunloo dynasty the enlargement and completion of the mosque remained unfinished and the restoration of the mosque and the completion of the ensemble were Resumed by Jahanshah's daughter Saleheh Khatun, during the reign of Uzun-Hassan's successor, Soltan Ya'qub.

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As extant documents indicate this majestic monument was extensively damaged by the earthquake and snow. Rainwater and harsh winters in subsequent years damaged the remaining decoration and tile works. In 1318 As AD 1939 the main portico of the mosque, and in 1327 AS / AD 1948 and  1328  AS / AD 1949 some of its walls were restored by Esma’il Dibaj and Haj-Ahalqassem  Me'mar Also. Necessary protective restorations have been carried out in recent years, and now one Blue Mosque is so solid enough and apt to be utilized. The brick dome of the Blue Mosque of Tabriz is one of the larges brick constructions created by Muslim architects in the ninth century, AH (870 H /  AD 1465-6).

The distribution of the weight of the dome on a multitude of pillars, visible inside the Blue Mosque. was one of the greatest achievements of Iranian architects in the course of this country's history which was rooted in the ancient past, particularly the Sasanian period. The stone spandrels. uniform exterior brick surfaces and the great height of this building well display the majesty of the Blue Mosque. Extensive attention to interior decoration and its suppression on the outside are expressive of the introverted architecture of the Qara - Qoyunloo period. The architectural style and the tessellated tile-work within the main prayer hall. particularly on the massive walls of the dome chamber illustrates the culmination of the trend begun in Iran in the early 8th century AH / 14 th century AD reaching an exceptional degree of perfection in the Blue Mosque.