The historical city and pleasant climate of Rayen are located in 57 longitudes and 29 latitudes at 100 km distance south of Kerman and 115km north of Jiroft. This city is also located on mount Hezar slop at 4501 meters altitude which is the highest mountain in the south of Iran and the central altitudes. Its height of it from the sea surface is 2001 meters and it is one of the cold regions of Kerman province. The most important Rayen attraction include Arg (citadel), waterfall, one thousand years old plane tree, 8400 years old cypress tree, volcanic craters, mineral water springs, and 3 Imam Zadeh tombs.
The historical city and pleasant climate of Rayen are located in 57 longitudes and 29 latitudes at 100 km distance south of Kerman and 115km north of Jiroft. This city is also located on mount Hezar slop at 4501 meters altitude which is the highest mountain in the south of Iran and the central altitudes. Its height of it from the sea surface is 2001 meters and it is one of the cold regions of Kerman province. The most important Rayen attraction include Arg (citadel), waterfall, one thousand years old plane tree, 8400 years old cypress tree, volcanic craters, mineral water springs, and 3 Imam Zadeh tombs. Rayen with old civilization and antiquity had a suitable situation during the Sassanid era because located on the way from east to west and Kerman, Jiroft Bandarabbas road. It was the central market and trade goods, and also the valuable fabric weaving that even exported them to the far countries, such as Egypt. Rayen was one of the defensive industries' production centers such as gun and sward a long time ago.
This great historical monument is the second mud-brick castle in Kerman after the Bam citadel. This historical and valuable monument with more than 22000 m2 area is one of the most famous and creditable cultural monuments in Rayen city, which visits by thousands of internal and external tourists annually. This historic castle, like all its contemporaries, is located on a high hill. Also, the tall walls of this castle with a height of 10 meters protect it from the invasion of thieves and artisans. The only gate of the castle is located on the eastern side direction with a wonderful big façade. The citadel includes a Market, Mosque, sports club, and public houses. This old castle is one of the most important historical documents of the city of Rayen, which dates back to the Sassanid period and before Islam. Other historical castles in this area have been destroyed over time due to natural disasters.
These castles and especially the Rayen and Bam citadels had a favorable and strategic commercial position due to their location at the Silk Road, the intersection of the North to the South of Khorasan and Govashir of Kerman to Bandar Abbas, and the west to east of Fars to Baluchistan. Its geography and position on the route of the above-mentioned communication way have always been threatened and invaded by various ethnic groups and governments. These forts have not only had a military role in different periods but have also been one of the important factors in preserving cities and the human population. Rayen is with an area of 2596 square kilometers, located 110 kilometers south of Kerman and 28 kilometers southwest of Kerman to Bam road.
1. Military-defense factors
2. Positioning in the communication-commercial direction
3. Climatic features
The documentations show that the architectural structure of the Citadel of Rayen and Bam can be compared from three perspectives.
A): Security and Defense: The reason for the existence of these citadels for housing is the lack of security in the area, wars, and bloodshed in the area. These citadels were built to protect the ruling family and its courtroom from local opposition. Indeed, it can be said that the maintenance of government sovereignty in all circumstances was a central point in the political structure of earlier societies since the fall of the ruler was the fall of a city. When designing a ruling house in this citadel, security aspects were strictly observed, so that escape routes were secretly prepared for the ruler under siege conditions. The passages of these citadels with narrow and twisted screw widths offer more safety.
B): Climate and communication conditions: Citadels in two completely different regions: The Rayen is located in a cold and mountainous region at the foot of the high mountains of Lalezar, Ramshak, Sarabnah, a natural barrier. Bam with tropical rainforest in a wide plain has no natural barrier, but rather high and strong towers.
C) Plan and materials: The principles of traditional Iranian architecture are observed in the design and structure of these citadels. In terms of the plan, both rectangular in shape but in terms of dimensions, the Citadel of Bam is larger.