Tabriz the first Safavid capital (1501–1555), with rich history, and a complex of the best historical monuments is the most beautiful and important tourist destination in the west of Iran. Tabriz is a familiar and unique city that tourists often know very well. A historical city that can be called the "Cradle of Culture and Literature" thanks to the great poets. The historical, cultural, artistic, and architectural monuments of Tabriz are so beautiful and captivating that they amaze every viewer and are among the best tourist destinations for incoming tours to Iran.
But apart from the mentioned, the name of Tabriz is tied to the names of "Arasbaran", "Kandovan" and "Eal Goli". In fact, the spectacular and unusual attractions of this city are what the tourists have discovered. Tabriz with magnificent and stunning monuments and architecture is shining as a Brilliant and the mosques, Bazaars, and museums can keep you happily occupied for your entire trip.
Tabriz is the most important city in northwestern Iran, it is also the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. This fertile area is located between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains. Tabriz is laid in 1,350 and 1,600 m (4,430 and 5,250 ft) above sea level. Tabriz with more than 3 million bilinguals population( speaking Azerbaijani and Persian ) is the largest economic hub and metropolitan area in northwest Iran. Tabriz with a complex of heavy industries factories is a major heavy of factories for automobiles, machine tools, refineries, petrochemicals, textiles, and cement production industries.
Although the early history of Tabriz city is not well documented, the results obtained from the last discoveries show the ancient history of the city.
The oldest unearthed documents are related to the excavations of 1990 in the courtyard of the Blue Mosque, in which the objects related to the Iron Age. The city was also listed as early as 714 BC. as Tarui or Tauris, on the epigraph of the Assyrian king Sargon II in 714 BC. This city has been chosen as the capital of several rulers in different historical periods, which shows the historical, political, and geographical importance of this city. But the oldest historical elements in this city are from the Sasanian period.
In 791 AD, Zubaydah, the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid's wife, rebuilt this city after a hard earthquake and adorned the city so much that she won the credit of its founder. Mongols Era. During the Mongol invasion, Tabriz was the capital of Mongol rulers and Ilkhanid Mongols(1256–1335). Tabriz was chosen as a capital by Abaqa Khan, the fourth ruler of the Ilkhanate, for its favored location in the northwestern grasslands. Ghazan Khan one of the most famous Ilkhanid kings selected Tabriz as the chief administrative center of an empire stretching from Anatolia to the Oxus River and from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean. He founded new defense walls around the city, and numerous charity and public buildings like caravansarais, schools, and water stores, also, made new facilities to serve traders traveling on the ancient Silk Road.
Many famous travelers such as Marco Polo in the 13th century mentioned this city for its beauty and vastness. Marco Polo traveled the Silk Road, passing through Tabriz around 1275, and described it as: “a great city surrounded by beautiful and pleasant gardens. َ a great roofed Bazar that buys the goods that come from foreign countries."
From 1375 to 1501, Tabriz was the capital of Qara Qoyunlu and Ag Qoyunlus the local rulers. They founded some historical monuments like the Blue Mosque(belonging to the Qara Qoyunlu period).
The golden era of Tabriz.
Tabriz was selected as the first Safavid capital In 1501, Tabriz was sacked by Selim I(Ottoman king) In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran and the defeat of the Safavid army. King Tahmasp I changed the capital from Tabriz to Qazvin in 1555, to avoid the growing threat of the Ottoman army on his capital, and finally and Shah Abbass transferred it to Isfahan.
During the Qajar era, this city was noticed again. During the Qajar period, Tabriz was chosen as the city for the residence of the Qajar prince. Tabriz was the main target for the Russian forces during their war with the Qajar government. They finally captured it in 1826and with the signing of the peace agreement between Iran and Russia, this city returned back to Iranian forces again. Abbass Mirza the prince of Qajar started new extensive reforms and modernization in the city. He prepared a new map of the city and began to rebuild Tabriz, a new postal system and tax system in this city, as well as military modernization of the Iranian army and related industries began in this city.