Esfahan: The City of Garden Designing
Due to the Zayandeh Rood and the network of ditches (Madi) in Esfahan, it has enjoyed a verdant coverage characterized it locally and internationally Thus, the majority of the historians since the 8th century A.D. have recounted the names of Isa Ibne Ayoub and 'Abd-
designing was of the most important items in city arrangement during the Seljuk Dynasty in Esfahan, where the name Chahar Bagh is one of them.
In a book titled: "Mahasen-e-Esfahan 'Bagh-e-Bekr', 'Bagh-e-Ahmad Siah', inter alia "Bagh-e-Karan', was the most famous so that Hafez the poet of Shiraz, describes it as The memory of Zayandeh Rood and Bagh-e-Karan', Created hundreds of streams through my eyes ran.
Since the 8th century, until the epoch of the Safavid Dynasty because of successive invasions of Mongols, Tamerlane, and Jahan Shah, most of these gardens razed and only their names remained. During the reign of Shah Esmail I, the founder of the Safavid Dynasty, a large garden was established called: Naghsh-e-Jahan' which later became the famous square by the same title at the time of Shah Abbas I. Simultaneously (17th century), multitudes of gardens designed in Esfahan, exceeding 71 large gardens that some of them covering tens of acres. Among them Hezar Jarib was the most famous, described by Thomas Herbert as the Heaven of Shah Abbas I. Besides there were some special gardens for hunting like “Bagh-e-Qush Khaneh', a training center for the birds of prey used by the royal family, or 'Bagh-eKumeh' and 'Bagh-e-Vahsh' for hunting and also, as a zoo, respectively. Some other famous royal gardens can be mentioned are: 'Bagh-e-Takht' and Abbas Abad on the west of Chahar Bagh, Bolbol Goldasteh Chini Khaneh and Chehel Sotoon in the royal areas.
Hezar Jarib (1000 Iranian acres) Garden A Public Park of the Safavid Era
This famous garden located on the southwestern part of ancient Esfahan (Seljuk), dates back to the 17th century A.D. and was in harmony with the slope of the land designed in sixteen different levels. With a delightful landscape and a number of hydraulic systems, it consisted of stream
Contrary to the Europeans, who generally pay more attention to the raising of flowers, Iranians usually make every endeavor to plant trees, design gardens, streams, etc. to redress the negative effects of the strong sunshine. Since the relatively dry climate (the humidity of Esfahan is about 20%) which bothers people, such public parks set up to give ideal rest and energy to them to continue towards their destination.
The size of the above-mentioned garden, given by the travelogues, was about 1300 steps on each side, but with reference to the existing urban plans of that era, it was 1200 meters by 1300 meters covered an area of 1.560 Iranian acres. This means an underestimated land measurement rendered for the title of this popular garden Amongst the historical events which occurred in this garden, the st important one is: the deposition of Tahmasb II, the last king of ho Safavid Dynasty (1722-1732 A.D.) from the throne by Nader the chief commander of the national army and his exile to Khorasan.
The Flower Garden In the Garden City of Esfahan
Amongst the spectacular sites in Esfahan, the Flower Garden is a different one. It was established in 1997 A.D. by the Municipal Office of Public Parks and Rest Areas on the northern bank of the river with an area of 5.5 hectares, across from the eastern view of Bozorg Mer Bridge. Although Esfahan has been a garden city since ancient times, the multifunctional recreational complex provides more attraction for its inhabitants and tourists that are comprised of the following parts:
1. A pavilion at the entrance; a small two-story building on its first floor as the information desk, introducing the existing seeds and flowers, and on its second floor, there is a collection of slides and films about the plants.
2.An artificial rock garden, 4 meters in height covering an area of 2500 meters.
3.A cascade in the garden that squirts a considerable debit of water from a height of 4 meters.
4.A large pool with 3500 square meters to host marine creatures.
5. A particular area for the children to play, equipped with a safety
6. A space with the plan of an Iranian carpet, having 1860 square reminiscent of Atiq Jam-e-Mosque' of Esfahan.
7. A special garden to raise various herbals used in drugs and edible different species of Iran.
8. A specific garden for the growth of coniferous trees in 2.1 hectares
9.A garden for the bulb species of flowers adaptable to the local climate
10. A collection of different species of the iris flower on the eastern complex, a 900-square meter area.
11. Different species of the daisy flower of various colors covers 900 square meters.
12. Since ancient times, Esfahan was known for its famous roses, so there different species of rose's existent in this region.
13. An open-air amphitheater set up for festivals, lectures, and public gather ings with a capacity for 250 persons.
14. Regarding the fluctuations of temperature, there is a hothouse with an area of 700 square meters for the wintertime.
Furthermore, in this complex, there is a traditional teahouse and a shop, for the sale of flowers and plants located on the northeastern side of the complex
Esfahan Aviary A Tiny Paradise for Birds
This type of recreational center is the first one in Iran that was designed and constructed primarily in Esfahan. In 1996 A.D., when a group of experts from Esfahan municipality took a trip to Kuala Lumpur, the twined city of Esfahan. they came up with the idea of establishing this aviary. It is located on one of the best spots in the west of Esfahan on the northern bank of the Zayandeh Rood.
It covers an area of five hectares with a green expanse of 1.7 hectares and is protected by a steel mesh spreading over the top of 16 highrise steel columns. Each of the columns fixed with a hinged joint to a single concrete footing and anchored by steel cords from the sides. The total envelope of the mesh is about 40,000 square meters. The site is one of the most spectacular centers in which the majority of international and domestic tourists increasingly visit it. In this aviary, many various types of birds are being kept separately in different specific cages, such as:
1. Some glass-framed chambers for parrots, budgerigars, cockatoos, etc.
2. Steel cages for the birds of prey to prevent them from hunting other birds, including the eagle, owl, falcon, etc.
3. Some man-made rocky bases for birds like the partridge, gray partridge, quail, etc.
4. The green areas covered with lawn and trees designed for birds, such as the peacock, pea fowls, red pheasant, etc
5.The ponds covering an area of about 2000 square meters for aqueous birds like ducks, flamingoes pelicans, etc.
The total population of birds in this garden exceeds 3000 comprising 127 different species.
In order to make it more attractive, there are also some additional activities in the workshops for taxidermy, hatching eggs and a training center for students. The aviary is visited by more than 200,000 people annually and frequented by visitors every day of the week. Although at
Butterfly Garden Another Extraordinary Attraction in Esfahan
On the southern part of Nature Bridge in Nazhvan, there is a project underway (2003) in an area over 10,000 square meters under the supervision of Esfahan municipality. The establishment of such a recreational center was extraordinary in Asia, and it seems that only in Malaysia such a project exists. The main part covered by steel trusses supported by cypress trunk columns. There are lots of beautiful flowers and refreshing ponds to make a pleasant environment for the habitat of butterflies. Such a surrounding should have a controlled temperature range of 18-30°C and 70% humidity.
In addition, it is being planned to make some aquariums for the river and sea fish there. The butterflies from all varieties of Iran would be displayed in a lively state to provide a suitable condition for the four different stages of butterfly life. Also, some modern lighting systems employed to collect butterflies in some conical cylindrical zones. In the proximity of the exhibition, another small, steel structure set up to grow the required flowers.